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Tuesday, October 31, 2017

ASIST 2017 Panel: Trust and Information Ethics

Trust and Information Ethics Panel

Patient Portals and Human Values 
Rachel N. Simons, Kenneth R. Fleischmann, Yan Zhang, Bo Xie (UT Austin)

Increased adoption of patient portals spurred by pressure from government and insurance companies. Usability cited for lack of patient adoption. UX usually focuses on tasks and requirements, not how values interact with UX.

Online tech that requires patient to have access to technology and have online access. Portals usually tethered to health care institutions's existing EHR. Belief that easier access can better engage patients to manage own health. They don't use interactive functions, only log in once. Human values and ICT. Fleischmann et al 2015 ID six salient values. Their approach to deductive content analysis of user studies. Systematic literature search of user studies of patient portals. 52 articles 2005-2015 all user studies of patient UX with portals, not physician studies, not aggregations. Privacy, security, confidentiality, transparency, trust, agency. Deductive content analysis (Elo & Kyngas, 2008).

Quant results: frequency of values coded in papers--most: security, then transparency, agency, privacy/trust, then confidentiality. Invocation of multiple values only 19% only mentioned one value. Agency and security co-occur the most, followed by security and privacy. In depth qualitative analysis. Thematic analysis. Privacy - negative: logging in in public, positive: the distance afforded by sending online secure messages.

Security and privacy frequently invoked together, focused on technical aspects of design, often conflated. Most documents didn't use actual term "transparency," but it often was reflected in concerns with the patient portal itself vs the transparency of the information presented. Trust in the portal and how it operates vs trust in the health information presented. Other issues included perceptions of and relationships with medical professionals, previous use of a portal, more. "Agency" was often used in a shallow way. No consensus on 'patient empowerment' definition.

Researchers and users do consider human values as part of interactions with patient portals. Users find several values in combination to be salient to their experiences. Qualitative analysis indicates values are rarely articulated or defined by researchers or users. General concepts of usability do not cover values by default.


Human Values and Trust in Scientific Journals, Mainstream Media, and Fake News
Nitin Verma, Kenneth R. Fleischmann, Kolina S. Koltai (UT Austin)

Media habits have been changing dramatically. Tremendous growth in fake news sharing on social media. Americans express only moderate trust in most news sources. Trust in institutions declining over time. Specifically for science news, majority of Americans get it from mainstream media moreso than from magazines, documentaries, and museums. But trust mainstream media least to report science news. Only have of social media users click through to follow up on sources. Degree to which evidence provided in scientific coverage by various outlets (Infographic - American Council on Science and Health Image/RealClear Science).

Human values - what is it that motivates peoples' behavior? Schwartz Value Inventory from social psychology used. Does including hyperlinks influence trust, do values of reader influence trust? Does the type of hyperlink influence trust? Used Amazon's mechanical Turk (MTurk), used to apply to studies in trust in online information. Used no retweets or replies and used new egg photo on Twitter to remove confounding factors. 21 Item PVQ Portrait Value Questionnaire by Schwartz. Given 10 tweets in a timeline to view with either no link, hidden link, direct link. Each shown an equal amount of times shown. Measured to see if clicked on links, at what point, and asked to rate trust. Post survey not included in this presentation. 205 HITs, Nonparametric methods because of ordinal rating scales and fewer assumptions needed to be made about underlying distributions. Posts with hyperlinks garnered significant level of more trust. (p<0 -="" .001="" 5="" across="" all="" and="" as="" better.="" better="" clicked="" condition.="" cues="" each="" fake="" for="" hidden="" high="" hyperlinks="" in="" indeed="" journal="" journals="" link="" links="" mainstream="" media="" msm="" nbsp="" news.="" news="" not="" of="" p="" perform="" performed="" post="" ratings="" scientific="" significantly="" sources="" terms="" than="" trust="" trustworthiness.="" types.="" were="" when="">
If links not clicked, what factors might be affecting how users express trust? Clicking through overrides personal values. Values play more important role in absence of other cues. Does including hyperlinks influence trust? Yes, increases trust. Does type increase trust? Yes. Do values of reader influence trust? Yes.


Trust in Qualitative Data Repositories
Rebecca D. Frank, University of Michigan

Part of larger project at UM, an IMLS funded project Elizabeth Yakel is PI.

Qualitative data in the field of education: talking abut educational records of practice and what that looks like is video of children and teachers in K-12 classrooms, video may be re-used, includes lesson plans, worksheets, student work, student assignments, demographic info about classrooms, schools districts. This is particularly interested in video. Difficult and costly to produce this kind of data in terms of cost of equipment, skill to capture dynamic aspect of classroom, permission and consent issues, K-12 not usually open and visible so cultural issues make capturing this data sensitive. Making available for sharing and reuse for others, those issues are compounded by technical issues of sharing large vide files, confidentiality, people depicted in or producing videos members of same professional community of practice as subjects. So, not a strong culture of dat sharing in education when it comes to video records of practice. But it is becoming more common. Repositories: ATLASn part of national board for professional teaching standards), TIMSSVideo (one dataset), Teaching & Learning Exploratory (Umich), Measures of Effective Teaching. Usually repositories spring up when initial goal was sharing the data. Usually a pricing model which is highly variable.

Previous research says: they're designed for tech capabilities and not user needs. Specialized tools repositories provide are a barrier and not a facilitator. "Trust is the data reuser's belief that using it will lead to positive outcomes, leading to reuse (Yoon, 2016); Bak 2016 Trust is social and contingent. Pirson & Malhotra (2011)- image: Theoretical framework of organizational trust. (Organization Science 22.4).

For this model, depth of interaction is extent or intensity of data reuse, and locus is relationship to repository. Tons of RQs: Number and range of repository data reusers interact with, depth of interactions between data reusers and repository staff, [more]. Survey (139, only 17 reported interaction with repository staff) and semistructured interviews (44; 21 interacted with staff). Found interaction with staff didn't always occur at point of data reuse. People who did interact with staff included incidental interaction at conferences, asking for help, fall along spectrum of internal and external.

Most useful are curated (positive), (negative) no responsiveness to taggers probably meant even worse response for users.

Trust: Data quality (are there problems with metadata and description?); co-production of data between repository and producer (work of original producer reliable?); responsiveness of staff (even if problem isn't completely solved, more overall positive view); curation process was strongest link to repository trust (more transparent, the more likely respondents were to find them trustworthy).

Participants didn't fall into the boxes of the original model, but a spectrum. For repositories: opportunities for interaction and participation in metadata creation, transparent data curation practices, responsiveness of repository staff.





Monday, October 30, 2017

ASIST 2017 Panel: Standards and Best Practices Related to the Publication, Exchange, and Usage of Open Data

ASIST 2017 Panel: Standards and Best Practices Related to the Publication, Exchange, and Usage of Open Data [abstract here]

Mark Needleman (co-chair ASIST Standards Committee)
Intentionally keep a record of NISO votes on the ASIST site, intentionally make public. ASIST site, About,

Standards and Toward Best Practices related to publication and exchange and usage of Shareable (not necessarily open) Data
Jane Greenberg

Data Sharing in open environments.

Data sharing advantages - more complete picture, ROI, more data, more experts, data reuse, better insights in to Big Data. Open data: DRYAD, DataOne, DFC, DataNet Federation Consortium, RDA (Research Data Alliance).

Examples
Standards for open data and data sharing. project-open-data.cio.gov - editable pages, rich 5.1 on metadata standards for open environment.
Not as active: rd-alliance.github.io/metadata-directory - directory of metadata standards for open data. interdisciplinary, open on github. Came from http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/metadata-standards

Have you: Deposited data in a repository? Deposit sensitive or restricted data into a repository. Drexel repository: repository statement says they can reproduce adn distribute, But what abotu closed data?

Closed environments - "A licensing model and ecosystem for data sharing (NIS spoke). Intel-Collaborative Cancer Cloud (CCC); Collaborative Genomics Cloud (CGC), FICO. Barriers to sharing data with sensitive info: complex regulations,;data lifecycle,;licensing agreements; technical and systematic aspects of security; rights and privacy for sensitive information; incentives: why would someone go to the effort to share sensitive information?

Need to take steps: where are the standards, and what should we be doing? There is still merit in sharing, no sharing without a legal agreement in these environments, involves lawyers for data sharing which takes time and money. Companies want to share data for universities to do data visualization--6 months later, only partially written agreement. Sometimes the data you get isn't the data you actually wanted, researchers move on and don't want to be bothered.

A Licensing Model and Ecosystem for Data Sharing - part of northeast big data hub. central hubs and smaller initiatives and working groups, and spokes and rings, see NSF page. They have a spoke (LicModEco) - collaboration between-cell at MIT and [?]. 3 goals: licensing framework generator so you don't have to reinvent the wheel, and tie to data sharing platform. Building off of a system called DataHub. Initial proposal--more important in software to have standards. Solve 80% of the problem.

Where do standards fit? What metadata standards exist for access and rights and for workflow? Can we borrow from this? Existing metadata and rights standards
 - rightsstatements.org
- METS loc.gov/standards/rights/METSRights.xsd (digital library containerizing)
- ODRL Open Digital Rights Language (www3.org/TR/odrl
- ONIX-PL

Connecting with other initiatives - Rights Data Integration Project (RDI), UK Copyright Hub, Research Data Alliance (legal interoperability interest group, RDA/NISO privacy task force)

FAIR talks about www.force11.org/group/fairgroup/fairprinciples

Licensing Model and Ecosystem for Data Sharing at MIT.
Enabling Seamless Data Sharing in Industry and Academia (2017) - collect agreements, build a trusted platform, good metadata.

Representatives from industry, government, academic. Agreed to collect data sharing agreements to understand what is accessible and understand how might build underlying ontology of system. Gathered data sharing agreements. When sensitive data is involved and the agreement has worked out.  More detail breakdown of classes where defined attributes out of, getting down to single term concepts or identifiers (ontologizing). Have done some NLTK for parsing terms.

Difficult to collect because folks are not interested in sharing
Conclusions and next steps: many different efforts in rights area that are useful, good work in open data environment AND in closed/restricted environments. In rights area FAIR principles speak to broader topic of data sharing. Community building has been crucial. See Metadata Research Center  team.


Standards and Best Practices Related to the Publication, Exchange, and Usage of Open Data: Data on the Web and Image Based Resources
Marcia Zeng

Data on the web, and image based resources. Publishing and sharing dat on the web. Openness and flexibility of web create new opportunities and challenges. Data publishers and consumers don't necessarily know each other, don't know what each other are doing. Can we not reinvent the wheel? Importance of following the best practices - contributes to trustworthiness and reuse of structural metadata, descriptive metadata, access info, data quality info, provenance info, usage info, licensing info.

W3C Recommendation of January 2017 Data on the Web Best Practices. This standard gives us the idea of showing you what are the best practices, each has a 'why we need this' and also and intended outcomes, possible approach, and benefit (as well as benchmarks of the benefits. Benefits to publishers [see slides]. Can we trust this data? Best practices can guide your answer to that.

Web Annotation to convey info about a resource or association between resources (comments, tags, blog post about a news article) - there is a web annotation framework. Web annotation data model.

other notable W3C recommendations include web mentions - notify any URL when you mention it on your site. Linked Data Notifications. Subresource Integrity.

IIIF - International Image interoperability Framework - Image based resources on the web. Books, archives, newspapers, sheet music, maps, architecture, scrolls, STEM imagery, manuscripts. 4 APIs Image, presentation, [X? Missed this one], content search. Everyone uses different software; so facilitate distributed access over standard APIs. How can we cite and give credit to the image (ex high vs low image resolution). IIIF gives a URI for each level (region, size, mirror, rotation, quality). IIIF Image API requires a standard format. Not just 2D; also 3D objects can be referred--any angle/side, etc. Images can be shared/compared.

The presentation API - collection - manifest - sequence - canvas - content. One examples shows 16 institutions each sharing their own image, can compare features from images provided from different institutions. Allows for transcriptions of text but also annotations. Any existing image server can adopt this API.

Learn more at IIIF's YouTube channel. go to iiif.io see implementation demos
All of the major systems now support IIIF. (Question: what about Omeka? Unanswered.)
[Do I need a linux machine


Update on EMR and EHR Standards: Finally starting to come together? Bob Kasenchak

Landscape for medical data
EMr: single practive's digital version of chart

EHR - theoretically all medical info

Sharing health info is complicated. Stored in disparate data structures, not all interoperable, legal and privacy concerns, some data has to be anonymized, HIPAA regulations govern which data have to be anonymized before it can be shared and gives guidelines on sharing. Different countries have different restrictions and requirements. Classic info mgt problems: storage, preservation, how push update to centralized record to all different users. Problem of quality of data source entered by humans.

Opportunity for standards fo rElectronic Health Info. Many, but HL7 is becoming generally accepted, and FHIR.

But some other standards: ASTM, ISO, openEHR, SMART.

HL7 - Health level 7 international - ANSI accredited. Becoming accepted because AMA is pushing for it, but adoption is slow and uneven. FHIR is a data format, XML platform. EHR and EMR agnostic, doesn't care what system you use. Goal of FHIR is to help organizations standardize and make available the data. Supposed to keep patient needs primary by minimizing data issues. Features APIs (RESTful). By adopting, can provide interoperable medical data over web regardless of platform and need/use case.

How long until 'flavors' of FHIR and HL7 to appear - XML is extensible by definition- leads to the SKOS problem. So many flavors and extensions that consuming apps can often no longer ingest SKOS from other organizations without significant pain: scripting, time, money, frustration. can you use SKOS? Which one? (Atypon, Temis, highwire, Skos 1, SKOS - XL)

Data Standards Life Cycle: Plan, acquire, process, analyze, preserve, publish, share - missing that standards change as they proliferate and are adopted, but extensibility creates a circle. How do extensible standards remain interoperable?






ASIST 2017 Panel: Organizational and Institutional Work in Data Infrastructures

Organizational and Institutional Work in Data Infrastructures

1. Data Archive Sustainability: Science Policy, and Business Model Planning for Social Science Data Archives 1965-2001 (Kalpana Shankar, Kristin Escenfelder, and Rachel Williams)

Still up to ears in data and trying to make sense of anything so no grand findings yet. More of a think piece on data archive sustainability. Comparative historical study of six social science data archives.

RQs:
How have SSDA change how they "do business" over the long term?
What factors have encouraged/discouraged that change?
How have national level science funding approaches influenced that change?

Acquiring documents like memos, board minutes, annual reports, strategic plans, etc.

Business models. Lay recognition that data archiving is important thing, can do cool new science in different ways, people starting up dat archives but with little thought to long term and how these things would maintain themselves over a 20-40 year period. Too many personal pet projects, based on grants, based on volunteer labor. So they searched for long-lived data archives.

Views of Data Archive Funding Sources
- Line item in a budget (unicorn)
Public good , so public funding. Pro: reliable and easier to plan. Con: may discourage innovation, no extra money for special projects
- 5 year grant cycles from national science/educational agency
Public good/public funding argument
- Marketplace: subscriptions, memberships, contract work
Marketplace of ideas, prove value, attract support, cross-subsidize
pro: pitch new ideas. Con: volatile, uncertainty.

Marketplace: ICPSR, Roper center, LIS cross national data center
5 year cycle: UK Data Archive, EDINA, Minnesota Population Center
Line item: UC Berkeley, Irish Social Science Data Archive

Different ways orgs change themselves over the long term to remain robust as data archives providing data services to researchers.

Same Data, Differing Objectives: What happened when research libraries took on a large scientific dataset? 

Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) big data on mapping the universe. 160TB dataset. AT time almost unprecedented for astronomy. Once STSS operations ceased... Key leadership started to address curating data in long term for SDSS data transfer process. Five year process, MOU signed with two libraries.

Data archive server - A: Archive & Serve, B: Archive
Catalog archive server: " "
Administrative archive: Preserve B: Mirror
Help Desk: A: Assume responsibility
Raw Data
Software

Differing reflections. Library stakeholders pleased with process.
SDSS had mixed perspectives - slower than anticipated, Helpdesk didn't offer scientific assistance

Why differing perspectives?
Tensions during process (SDSS vs library perspectives)
a) Metatension - data vs infrastructure as primary legacy. Libraries need to constantly recruit people to services, and see research data services as a broader service to use and offer to other scientists with other datasets. SDSS wanted a helpdesk tailored to specialized astronomy knowledge, library wanted something easily adapted to other domains.
b) Curating living dataset vs curating closed dataset. SDSS wanted usable dataset live and available, where library was concerned with preserving in static format and preventing bit rot. Differing interpretations of what 'curation' meant and the terms around this. Here differences were resolved during data process.
c) Infrastructure tailored to astronomy/SDSS vs

Main motivations differed.

Site Based Infrastructuring: Data Work at Launch and Termination 
Karen S. Baker
3 concepts: Local collective data work, participation, infrastructuring.
Local collective data work: Local wrt data origin/where generated. Collective refers to a community assembling data from a shared sampling location. Data work (Baker, 2017) - defined as any effort [...]
Ethnography - studying data work pratcice
Participatory design
Infrastructuring (Star & Bowker, 2002; Karasti & Baker, 2004, 2014). Ongoing socio-technical process.

EcoPrairie - End of Mature Infrastructure.
Data manager as a data *ally* vs primary information.
How does local data collective management end?
Participation as a participatory designer. CO-creating site closing checklist
Infrastructure happening as a process: 2 years to terminate, packaging datasets, migrating data to a second repository, partnering with university on digitized materials.

EcoRiver
Researchers as data allies.
How does local collective data management begin?
Adding data to agenda at meeting for field station, co-authoring, co-chairing. Decisions as to what to do due to local factors t be juggled that the researchers decide what to do. Data stewardship workshop to inform colleagues at various field stations. Here infrastructuring resulted in new instrumentation with streamed data, and the technician, not the data specialist, felt they were doing data management.

Local data collective and remote center data partnering. Designing, planning, making, developing, growing infrastructure.

Sustainability Under Construction: DataOne 
Suzie Allard (UTK)

Researcher as practitioner.
DataOne - 2009 named and funded - infrastructure represented by 3 coordinating nodes, and 40 member nodes. Coordinating nodes hold all the data, central holds the metadata. Enable new science by providing access to data. Member nodes from different communities - biological, earth science, geological data. From beginning, Data One had participatory design. Two diff working groups: Cyber to deal with infrastructure, sustainability and governance, and outreach.

Sustainability - answer needs of the people we serve: scientists in different domains (academic, government), computer scientists, librarians.

Sustainability in 4 contexts: community engagement, long term planning, what kind of business models do we have to have (money sustains infrastructure), and change management )what is core thing we offer that will be there in long term?).

Lesson learned:
- Understand your stakeholders. Value proposition: what is value we bring to our scientists as stakeholders? People running repositories are crucial to sustainability, Data managers at partners are crucial into future. Making sure you get more downloads, prove value, however you need to report to be funded.
- Planning from inception: what is sustainability, what will it look like.
- Develop business case, think entrepreneurally, and how you will change
- Adjust the formula to respond to change. Where we are now, assess vs where are going to.

What has changed: customers and market, SOPs to make sure infrastructure stays in place faster, cleaner. Thinking abut cost structure and revenue stream, and what resources do you have that you can afford to keep into future and what will it look like into future.

Rubbing Shoulders: Data Sharing Approaches in Scientific Data Repositories
Sarika Sharma and Steve Sawyer

Data sharing: improve transparency, allow for reuse, and encourage open access. Sharing as a property of the scientific community; sharing beyond informal reciprocity requires institutions to exist

A shared capacity for the future? Big infrastructure for science - complex landscape (publishers, academic societies, government agencies, host institutions, community/collectives - both colleagues and competitors.

Governance: institutions go beyond informal practices - make decisions, how do you manage resources, allocate decision-making, enact mechanisms for coordination and resolution of differences.

Scientific repositories: Aligning data sharing practices, infrastructure and governance. Long Term Ecological Research, Great Lakes Ecological Network, Digital Archaeological Record. (Universities now building repositories as competitive advantage for their faculty). How does governance of scientific data repository

LTER - sites in network, federated shareable data, infrastructure localized layered on top is a generalized search platform. GLEON - researcher groups, hundreds involved. Data standards: upon membership agreement, search data via individual GLEON researchers; infrastructure local but is a contact list, totally decentralized. tDAR - single portal gives access to multiple repositories, individual scholar can contact the loca site they need. Governance there is making sure people stay connected; data belongs to individual subscribers and not network.

Scientific repositories from governance standpoint: federated access, balancing shared and local, human-based infrastructure. If you/lab leave, hard to replace. How do we know  we can trust you, that your data will stay and is structured the way we need.
Models: Federated access, human-based access, directed access.
No such thing as a best practice that would work across communities.
Concept of governance is broader in terms of enagaging community but in what way and to what purpose?

Q&A

With no influx of money, the value of data repositories of info with living specimens are difficult ot maintain. When funding dies or lab leaves, data leaves with it. Unreplicatable data (for exzample see U of Louisiana at Monroe example).

Also digital objects--as close down and leave space, all manner of photographs and digitized infrastructure, field notebooks, etc. once digitized, could be handled.

Politics and infrastructure.

What about arts and humanities as relying on data? This was all science repositories. Unprivileged and underserved population. We don't usually think of them as data driven. Answer (Steve) - scientific data infrastructure: what is a library, what is a museum, what are our artifacts? These have well founded governance processes, they've figured it out. In most of scientific infrastructure trying to catch up to hundreds of years of libraries and museums, so unsophisticated governance. When stakeholder driven, very short term focus, looking right now, and it does change way we think about these artifacts. Point of great tension because these scientific communities tend to be localized. Data governance for humanities and arts: while libs and museums are doing things, only certain communities [...] governance is different.

Emerging communities.

Need a dissertation on the politics behind the History of ARTStor and the one that got subsumed in ARTstor. Dance and theater are interesting because intellectual property issues get out of control. Multiple levels of IP that get difficult to make things available in a networked sort of way. Digital repository of Ireland has been working on digitizing humanities and making available - almost e

Transcription for choreography - labannotation?

Differential access to resources for decision-making - why are some people give access or power of who has access to a dataset and others are not? [My thought: same reason resources are differentially distributed anywhere else]. Depends on incentivization within community in which scholars exist. If they get a benefit for sharing, see more of it than hoarding/not-sharing. Externalities and how people will act. Or sensitive data. Or business model - sometimes restrict sharing because need to charge because if no charge, organization wouldn't exist to even provide the sharing. Policy around information is difficult because people perceive 'information' in different ways, complex and multidimensional.

Allude to need to make infrastructuring more visible. As user of infrastructure, want it to be a black box that just works. We only realize importance of infrastructure where it fails. But here, infrastructure made visible in order to even make it happen. Ex: Apache user community is millions, but people involved in upkeep is much smaller. Governance decides how transparent it needs to be.


Thursday, October 26, 2017

Writing Practice: Considering Goals and Accomplishments

I received an email from a colleague who keeps us all reminded of faculty development opportunities. One of the things she regularly emails about are the regular weekly faculty writing groups that have been established--a way for faculty to set aside time to write alongside colleagues. My personal favorite is the Friday morning silent writing group that history professor and fabulous colleague Dr. Robin Mitchell set up--no discussion, no talking, just a handful of us around the table, plugged in and surrounded by our notes, clattering away at keyboards. It's my preferred way of group writing. Some of the other groups do regular shares or colleague critiques. I find that what I need most is really just the set-aside block of time where I can focus and dive deep for three or four hours. There's no good way to make that happen in my office with the myriad distractions, and I don't like writing from home because pajamas, dog, tv, bed, couch--you get the idea. I need something where I have to put on pants, get up and out, but also something that helps isolate me. Thus, the writing group.

I attended the same writing group in the spring, and was gratified to see that the time paid off in an edited collection completed, a number of conference proposals written and accepted, and a dissertation prospectus written and approved. The set-aside time is worth it in terms of output versus input--four hours a week, most weeks, kept me on track for the scholarship part of my faculty portfolio and helped me maintain momentum. I found that the weekly meeting also forced me to actually think each week about writing and research. That sounds silly, of course I'm surrounded by it, and always doing it, but having to think about strategizing for those hours, I was much more deliberate than I am when I only throw the occasional 15 or 30 minutes at it. The practice of the writing group (and, I'll admit, my yoga practice) also made me realize how very scattered I am, zipping from this thing to that, and not doing a very good job of focusing on any one thing. 

My attendance has been spotty this semester because of meetings and travel, but I've managed to attend some of the writing group sessions. Other weeks I moved that block of time and locked myself in my office to concentrate on One Thing for a bit. It hasn't felt like a consistent enough practice this semester, though. I'm feeling generally scattered and torn in different directions and travel weary and personalstuff weary and and and and

Yeah, it's that time of the semester. In any case, writing group good, even though I've been poor in my practice. We just received an email from my faculty-development-minded colleague not only to remind us about the various times and places for the weekly groups, but this time to ask us via Google form two questions:

What are we working on this semester? / What are our goals for this semester?
What milestones have you recently reached?

I was in email-deleting mode and almost absentmindedly hit delete before stopping.

What were my goals? I've been moving at light speed and while I had goals and Lists of Things to Do, I haven't recently revisited them as an entire list to think about progress. And milestones--some very good news has been petering in lately, but as it comes in dribs and drabs peppered among all the other work, I have not stopped to consider actual accomplishment or milestones. So I stopped, and decided to fill out the Google form.

What am I working on this semester/ goals?

(1) Develop and submit book proposal (out of EdD dissertation) to Routledge
(2) Write the scholarship application for the Digital Humanities Summer Institute
(3) Send conference proposal abstracts to 2 or more conferences related to my work in Dante Studies, 
(4) draft article from one of my collected datasets
(5) draft chapter 2 of current dissertation
(6) Apply for AAUW fellowship

What milestones have I recently reached?
(1) Book proposal completed and submitted to Routledge 
(2) Wrote and submitted scholarship application to the Digital Humanities Summer Institute
(2a) Was awarded *two* weeklong workshop tuition scholarships to DHSI
(3) Conference proposals written and submitted for:
(3a) International Congress of Medieval Studies [accepted, sponsored by the Dante Society of America!]
(3b) American Association of Religion Western Region [pending decision]
(3c) Association for the Study of Women and Mythology [pending decision]
(6) Collected letters of reference for AAUW fellowship
 
I was surprised. Looking at it listed out like that, I suddenly feel like I've accomplished quite a lot for a semester, particularly for a semester where I am navigating new job responsibilities. I can't believe something as silly and obvious as taking a moment to list out goals and consider milestones could be so satisfying and calming. I'm going to have to add this s a regular part of my professional practice. It helps, particularly when I feel like I've been careening aimlessly. Now I can say, no, I had goals at the beginning of the semester. And regular check-in about milestones can allow me to take a breath and say yes, I am working on these things, I am making progress.

Taking a moment. In with the good, out with the stress. 

Tuesday, October 24, 2017

SJSU Open Access Conference 2017: (Re)Placing Open: Assessing the Current OA Landscape (Afternoon Sessions)


Zoƫ McLaughlinUniversity of Michigan - Ann Arbor

ASEAN intergovernmental org that tries to foster communication and exchange between Southeast Asian nations. Pulled links to countries in Southeast Asia - regional overview, Indonesia dominates in all indexes, Malaysia and Thailand follow closely. DOJ and ROAD almost same percentage-wise. OpenDoor is different. Varying levels of curation in these different directories and varying levels of self-submission. OA repositories in SE Asia probably not submitting them everywhere. Singapore huge in SCOPUS but not in OA realm.

ASEAN citation index like SCOPUS includes journals that are not open access. Thailand, then Malaysia, then Indonesia. Not not necessarily OA. Country specific databases of journals, not all OA but do include OA. Indonesia's Portal Garuda, Malaysian Citation Center, Phillipine E-Journals Thai Journal Citation Index.

Case: Indonesia. Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education has been pushing to put content up online to varying levels of success. University administrations to varying degrees have also been pushing departments to be publishing online. They've been doing this through OJS (Open Journal Systems). "We have nothing in print anymore." Where can I get stuff from America online, I want to download it? ... Not just journal articles, also books.

Kinks in system: one big problem Southeast Asia subject librarians discuss is how hard it is for people in the west to find these sources. If you don't know what you're looking for, you can't find it. Poorly indexed. Also, problem with OA journals and sites just going down. Many of the OpenDoor repositories with smaller numbers, in Singapore 1/7 down, another had interface broken. Maintaining longevity is a problem.

Solutions: Librarians curate collections themselves, "here are the OA journals of Southeast Asia". Who can set those criteria? Let's forge partnerships with academic universities in SEAsia - problematic because part of the problem there is building up infrastructure and knowledge. f all responsiblity falls on an institution here, then the infrastructure and knowledge never gets built in SEAsia. need broader inclusion of these materials and broader access to these materials.

Q--Shouldn't we ask SEAsian Libs how they can do this, or help with infrastructure to overcome issues of permanence without being overbearing but helping to support their own power?

Q/statement: South Asia company Informatics - JGate - metadata level. They have competencies to do what you're looking at and are more geographically related.

Q: Best practices for sustainability? But In Indonesia not looking to copy US model, doing their own thing. Audience comment: doesn;t sounds like they're doing to well.

Q: what are the challenges? A: They don't perceive it as a big problem. The problem isn't power grid and servers and who is maintaining them. They're accustomed to servers being down so don't see it as an issue. Presenter's concern is getting access to the research going on there for people outside of Southeast Asia. Smaller universities don't see OCLC as something they want to invest in. Librarians don't have a whole lot of power to direct things in the way higher ed is set up.

Nice job by a Michigan LIS student.



Kathryn Blackmer ReyesSan Jose State University
Emily K. ChanSan Jose State UniversityApril GilbertSan Jose State University


Collection offered to Special Collections was Royal Chicano Air Force (RCAF). Library rejected it. Chicano community in University (SacSatte) and in the city couldn't understand why and were very upset. Eventually RCAF did get a home at UC Santa Barbara. Eventually SacState got the materials.

Democratizing elements of an IR:
Users directly engage with digital materials
Gatekeeping at point of retrieval is minimal
For textual documents, all words are access points
Lack of SC rituals during search and retrieval of materials

Sheffield" More than acid-free folders" - broaden ALA core value of preservation to include stewardship (negates ownership on part of library and keeps agency with creators of content. Continual dialogue with true owners. Problematizes "acquisitions" and other terms indicating power structures. resist commodification of a community's works. Even though part of larger institutional narrative they shouldn't be subsumed. Conflict in accepting and participating in power structure while participating in marginalization of the group. Leverage search optimization, but beyond serendipity, need to connect with community for ongoing conversation and outreach.

Responsible curation and digitization: reconsider concepts like
ownership
distrinution
copyright
downstream use permissions

Cultural Heritage Center

Community didn't necessarily want it to go to Special Collections. Loss of ownership adn autonomy, usually have to deed items to university, demands relationship that university will be a proper steward, removes community autonomy. The CHC helped build trust.
Ethnic digital collection:
Student protest publications, academic association, San Jose community collection, Affinity group commencement programs
CHC events

Considerations for building ethnically diverse collections: decenter archive and challenge structures. Don't post and ghost - we built it so they should come. Admins and managers may have concerns about optics. items fraught with conflict because came from protests. These voices were already there, just now being included. See Sheffield article.

Self reflection and engagement:
Acknowledge own structures of power, hierarchies, and systems of labor in bringing these works to light
Undo conceptions of Collecting and Acquiring; avoid adhering traditional structure of value to works
Be diverse in your own team (librarians, staff, student assistants)
Engage with staff, students, faculty, on campus who work with affinity groups
Librarians who engage in this endeavor may not feel comfortable approaching infinity groups (power dynamics)

Takeaways - build relationships wit your communities, don't take but borrow, target current events and activities (tomorrow's history), preserve born-digital documents or web-based pages.

My thought son the "Just let me borrow so I can digitize!" - hrm, not a solution. Also, the "Just put it up and if someone says take it down, then we'll deal with it "- the one white librarian in the presenting group. Gah. Also this is what we teach our students NOT to do.

Q: say more about the structure of how campus fees pay for something, then owned by university in some way, like student publications. A: Trying to locate authorship and find communities to get permission to put online. Published in 70s and no idea where they are today.

Q: Reaction from students: reaction positive, 50th anniversary class wants to ask alumni for materials to bring in like alternative voice publications from 70s.

Q: UWash has institutionalized relationship between community and MOU with native peoples, uses Mukurtu to be culturally sensitive about who can see what and when; and what about radicals from 70s who dont want their materials findable via Google...


Anneliese TaylorUniversity of California, San Francisco
Teddy GomesWorldreader

UCSF Library project. UCSF, explicitly dedicated to health sciences, only grad and professional student. Research intensive, 2nd highest recipients of NIH awards, 6,000 published articles annually.  Articles total count and OA count (according to Web of Science).

Green OA policy. Not a mandate they have to publish in an open access journal, just that the article has to be made publicly accessible, no embargo. Initial policy May 2012 passed by Academic Senate (not all faculty, just certain). UCSF just for academic senate faculty in 2012, then in 2013 UC wide policy impacted all Senate faculty at all 10 UC campuses similar to the 2012 UCSF one. In Oct 2015 all non-Senate employees included.

UC OA policy. UCSF faculty decided would abide by 2012. "Get a waiver, embargo, or addendum fir your publisher" form - ask about this. what's th epolicy? Rights retention, nonexclusive license that pre-empts exclusive publication agreement that author enters into; only covers publications entered into agreement after policy was passed, make available immediate upon publication. Doesn't specify that it has to go into IR, but is default. If they want another OA, also acceptable. There is some room to opt out of policy for any article they choose.

Tea, at California Digital Library Access & Publishing group (CDL) - operate IR, create form to generate waivers and embargos and addenda. UC's eScholarship- just launched new site - see this for the 'deposit work now' and statement on it.

Passed policy. Compliance? Not really. Policy not encouraging people to deposit. After an RFP process, research info management system (CRIS or RIS) licensed by UC. Symplectic of MacMillan, launched at end of 2014 into early 2015 for 3 UC campuses to use. UC Publication management - only Senate faculty, not staff, not non-Senate faculty. System searches for publications, faculty got an email telling them the number of publications that had been IDed by system, and note which are eligible to be uploaded. List of publications authors verify and claim or not. If claim it, takes directly to deposit page. A deposit is final author accepted version, or OA pdf, or link to OA location.

Elements is database but not branded that way; they use Publication Management System (PMS). Definite significant increase in number of deposits. But 1630 pales vs eligible of the 6000.

Solution: hire a temp project librarian to increase engagement with system and increase deposit rate.
Approaches to increase participation:
Cleaning up pending lists and unclaimed publications (stats of publications!)
Deposit on behalf of authors
Outreach/communication with users

reducing number of pending publications: Old count of 2210, new count of 82. especially problematic for common names, which is initial settings. You can then add advanced search settings but users not doing that. Post cleanup: 40% drop when UCSF affiliation added to settings. Few using ORCID.

Pending list cleanup - offered to match to CV. 31% opened email, 3% responded. Even in friend group (advocates of OA, established relationship) only 20% response.Needed to make emails short and action oriented.

Elements can ID full text OA files and auto-deposit  as OA links instead of files (pubmed central, arXiv, other OA locations). Links for auto-deposits because did without permission of faculty. Only works for verified ones.

Paid: Provost, then CDL took over payment. if ongoing they might ask for cost shares by campuses but not out of campus budgets right now.

Licensed OAFind+ (now 1foldr Data) is an OA file locator service; majority found on PubMed Central  Publisher OA, ResearchGate Institutional repository. Other OA article finding tools - unpaywall, oadoi, open Access Button, Delta Think, UC e-links.

make communications more actin oriented, get them to click big verify button, less of other text. Look at how many opens you get, conversions, etc. UC Publication Management FAQ. Contact newly added faculty before they're in the system to give a heads up; email campaigns using mailchimp for new features, other noteworthy messages. elements doesn't yet have a lot of email options.

- Compliance rate went from 9.4% to 16.8
- Faculty are using multiple publication management tools
- Auto claiming and auto-deposit is key - folks were happy is actual crawling system, they don't have to enter it like a job application. SCOPUS IDs, researcher IDs and ORCIDs, will autoclaim articles.
- Ongoing effort necessary

Future: Funding uncertainty; staffing need - when temp leaves, the work still needs to be done if you want the tool and policy to be successful it'll need human resources; new escholarship; better tool integration.










Monday, October 23, 2017

SJSU Open Access Conference 2017: (Re)Placing Open: Assessing the Current OA Landscape (Morning Sessions)

Full Program Available Here


Welcome Address - Dr. Tracy Elliott
SJSU repository allows researchers to share more broadly, but also to see more quickly the impact of that research.

Charlotte Roh, University of San Francisco

Scholcomm at USanFran, she's holding a brownbag around theme "Open in Order To." Successful examples: SPARC website examples, redalyc.org and SciELO, Harvard's DASH repository - comments about media and democracy. MIT's OA Stories. USF respository most downloaded record is a dissertation (repositories usually only the way to get access to theses). Video of John Lewis accepting National Book Award. JOhn Lewis and co-authors won with a graphic novel, first of those nominated to win. Due to belief comic books are inherently bad (Wertham's Seduction of the Innocent - research wrong and librarians enforcing an untruth that graphic novels are all bad). Also, Lewis and his family were not allowed in library. Not over - in Boston Chinatown's library was shut down and is only now reopening after years of lobbying.

Another way people of color have been shut out is as creators - 1985 only 18 children's books created by African Americans, representation inside books themselves is also a problem. Diversity in Children's Books 2015 infographic. Race/thnicity of mainstream publishing professionals also lacks diversity. Also heteronormative and able-bodied.

Fobazi Ettarh - "vocational awe" Jusy 2017 keynote- feeling that profession is above critique, but at end of day libraries are institutions located at center of marginal oppressions that need reform. Demograohics of scholarly publishing professionals - overwhelmingly white - also an institution. Oxford University part of empire, Elsevier has roots in arms trade (what the actual fuck?) roots also in empire. US is also an empire (read Ebony and Ivory on how slavery built American educational institutions). Race/ethnicity of library professionals: we are much less diverse than we would like to believe.

The problem is all of us: we hold power. As we think of demographics in publishing, academia, libraries, "Who has power" slide - CC-BY, invites us to use it. How this power plays out - American Historical Review apologized for assigning review to white supremacist, issue on BLM that didn't include any black authors. Third World Quarterly published article  defense of colonialism - many members of board resigned over it.

Lariviere's Global gender disparities in science article (2013). What gets published determines who gets funded, who gets tenure, whose research is published and available. And who own our boased output. Lariviere's 2015 Oligopoloy of academic publishers in the digital era. PLoS ONE 10.6 article.

Coalition for Responsible Sharing - publishers are thinking of themselves as technologists and tech companies - optimizing altmetrics, etc. Confluence between academia and technology. Just as Google can be biased and gamed (Safiya Noble's Algorithms of Oppression), so can Google Scholar. Women academics are finding out they're being trolled online by looking at their altmetrics online. "Are ALMs/altmetrics propagating global inequity" article. Open Education conference - 3 of 4 keynotes were white men talking about diversity. "Making the Global Local: the Colonialism of Scholarly Communication" at blog At The Intersection.

We should do better, and we know how to do better. Making resources available to people with disabilities is within our reach. Open access doesn't mean free. UMinn keeps list of higher ed Accessiblity lawsuits

Walidah's "Liberated Archives" Keynote, Society of American Archivists 2017 Annual Conference. Open access doesn't just mean "come on in we're open." But we've closed out people of color for so long, how do we take this knowledge people want, not what we assume they want, out into community where they can engage with it. Open access is not just virtual.

Examples of actions: Library Publishing Coalition putting together Ethical Framework for Academic Publishing; AAUP Diversity Fellowships funded by Mellon; Martin Paul Eve, co-director of Open Library of the Humanities; OpenCon's diversity statement; The Knowledge Gap: The Geopolitics of Academic Production.

One of silver linings of current administration is people are taking these topics seriously. Now 15 min for questions.

How has OA impacted ability of people of color to use and publish? Tools of publishing in hands of everyone now; publishing as a process is less precious than it used to be, but the rest of the infrastructure of prestige still remains. Global South and Asia bitterness on how research and publication is received. World Bank put out a paper noting that if you're publishing on economics and it's not about the Global North it's less likely to get published, so researchers change their focus because need tenure. Jeffrey Beal hasn't helped situation because in places where publishing is growing, whereas we have protocols and checks and balances, there are all sorts of places where we are less forgiving than we should be of how things are developing and growing.

Informal article sharing networks - are folks developing peer networks instead of formal publishing endeavors, and is that holding back improvement? Publishing in Southern and Latin America has always been open access and always state funded and always mined by people in West who haven't attributed it properly. Latin American and South America didn't just start with OA via the Budapest talks. Large West conglomerate publishers have been coming in and purchasing, breaking socialist sharing model with the paid model.

Understanding of Google algorithm - top results are most linked to by other web pages? Search results used to be based on links to other content, but not the case anymore, that was a decade ago. Search engine optimization - marketers do not think of Google as a neutral tool. Noble's research started because when she Googled "black girls" she got porn, and no one listened until she was published in Bitch magazine and then they changed their algorithm. So that tells us their algorithm isn't based upon neutrality, they've never been neutral.

20 states in US where you cannot create a municipal broadband because lobbyists have succeeded in making it difficult or illegal. People have control over what we see, how we see it, when we see it. 

Any categorizing scheme reflects some bias. Dewey had 50 categories of religion, 59 were Christian. In Wikipedia - boasted enormous amount of openness, but is mainly white European males doing the contributing. Issue of you need reliable sources (who defines the aspect of reliability in colonial world? The colonizers! Other kinds of information are not considered valid). Deep problem.

In OA journals, often have article submission fees that have been creeping up, and what is impact upon researchers of color while library budgets are contracting? who owns our research, who has the right to issue takedown notices? techDirt article on 'Coalition for responsible Sharing' issuing takedowns, techCrunch article "ResearchGate Raises $52.6M for its social research network for scientists." Need to negotiate for translation rights, take out noncompete clause on article publication if planning to publish book, negotiate rights for version in 5 years if it will become outdated. Retain rights over own work in full or in part that you will need.

As a library too small to handle OA fees for faculty--you can and should negotiate those fees, everything is negotiable. Those fees are based on what the market can bear. Roh tells her authors to tell publishers that they have no grant funding but still want to publish, and then fees are altered. It's not a cost recovery model. Fee for publishing not because of OA. In some scientific fields has always been standard based on illustrations in color, charts, etc. - has long been pay for publication, not pay for OA. It's a publishing model that moved into the OA realm. Consequence is that pay for publishing forces researchers outside the West to partner with funded researchers for the West; people of color do all the work, Western researchers gaining the credit. 

{Note to self: OA Tracking Project}

Leslie Kennedy EdDCSU Chancellor's Office
Lesley Farmer PhDCalifornia State University, Long Beach

Trying to help faculty incorporate ICT literacy into the curriculum.

CSU OER initiatives, CA legislation influences, faculty and student OER activities, impact, next steps, physical and intellectual access to OERS. OERs - in public domain or introduced with open license where anyone can freely use, re-use, and share.

Open - free PLUS permissions. Wiley "What does open allow me to do?" Retain, Reuse, Revise, Remix, Redistribute.

Why OER? Cost savings for students, facilitates choice of resources, often digital access, may be more timely, remix options, options for student interaction and contribution to publishing, philosophy of open education, but how do you find and select them? Vetting and production and printing takes time, digital materials available in timely manner is important. Students can be part of this process, generating knowledge, this is becoming more of a norm.

Faculty: "I can't find this stuff, I don't know how to do it, it isn't good enough because it's free." Put in ISBN, it will offer relevant materials.

MERLOT is part of solution, a community based repository of learning objects, can be repurposed for a lot of different situations. Free digital library of online teaching and learning. 20 years old, contributors and editors from around the world and in different languages, over 78,000 materials, contributed by educators, peer-reviewed.

Principles: choice, affordability, accessiblity
Funding: campus grants ($15-20k annually)
Communication: webinars, conference, listservs, resources
Partner library, bookstore, DSPS, AT FacDev, students
Campus showcases and recognition events

Motto: give a gift and not a burden. Even though Chancellor's office funds, ends up on someone else's list of to-dos.

CA OER Legislation milestones, various bills passed. For CSU (and occasionally UCs and community colleges). Most recent bill requires that put into online schedule whether course materials are free or not.

SB1052, free textbooks for a gen ed course due to articulation need, and develop deliverable for school for ed. Cool4ed.org? Evaluations of textbooks. when faculty had to come up with review criteria, developed a rubric. Cloned for Louisiana, TN, soon FL, and support GA State and SUNY and Excelsior College.

Recognition of faculty. 1/3-1/2 faculty participating in affordable learning solutions and lowering costs for students (CSUDH). CSU Bakersfield Econ department went completely open! (Wow.) 20 campuses of 23 passed faculty senate resolutions in past year in support of OERs, requirement to apply for funds. (Kind of a bribe?)

List of CSU and community college campuses with Faculty Professional Development Implementation Plan.

Faculty member doesn't feel beholden to stick to the purchased text, feel more freedom with an open textbook. Students buy required materials at 45%, similar to national numbers; 59% feel they're affected negatively if don't purchase materials, and will choose to purchase for major courses and not GE courses, thus the focus of OER.

Student advocacy activities. Hey shoutout for Channel Islands is marking in online registration system which courses have all free course materials.

Not just access, but intellectual access. Differences between reading online vs print are different. Part of ICT/digital learning and need to pass on to students. Proliferation of literacies. ICT literacy confluence of infolit, digital literacy, and instructional design. In MERLOT there's an ICT literacy community section with information about identifying ICT literacy, ways to incorporate it. SUbject specific inspiration, see how real people have done it.

Need to match student learning utcomes with particular kinds of resources. what resources are out there, how easy to use, are they accessible, ho wmuch time does it take to learn to use the resource, are there plugins, how do we use in learning activity, how use for students ot gain and apply it.

remix-ti - resource showing how to use different tools to develop student assignments using ICT.

4 part course on ICT integration that faculty can use. More librarians and instructional designers can team with faculty developing expertise, richer learning experiences for students and higher chance students will succeed academically.

Next steps:

Q: more of these are digital, (heck, there's smart refrigerators). Save students money, increasing equity and access for students. Lowering text cost, but also assumption that students have access to devices. Digital divide still exists.

Q: Partnerships with private universities? Excelsior, meeting with U of Pacific. Willing to share whatever we can. Wrt case studies, can't think of any specifics.

Q: How does this transfer to tenure and promotion - has this movement affected those faculty publishing in OA journals and putting forth more OA tenure packets? A: for years print has been privileged. Needle is slowly moving. New fight is about blogs and wort of social media. A little more awareness of altmetrics. faculty have been appreciative of librarians who can help with altmetrics or  impact factor. Seeing less of an emphasis on format, but it's still la bit of a struggle. This year we can finally do our RTP online. Only U of British Columbia embeds in RTP that we know of.

Q: pushback from faculty on the academic freedom front: Is pushing these materials imposing -- no, we provide as resources and encourage faculty to look at them. usually we see one faculty member might adopt an open stacks book and share with colleagues. San Luis Obispo is now all OpenStacks for Chemistry. With new legislation where courses are marked or word of mouth, those sections fill before the others, so it's more effective practice when have an entire program who looks at the menu of available textbooks to see what makes sense for students, and more equitable for students

Is required for those mentioned GenEd classes to use those free resources?

Rachel K. StarkCalifornia State University, Sacramento
Mickel ParisUniversity of the PacificJoy RodriguezKaiser Permanente (not present)


Kaiser:
Specifically some of the issues that have come up in practice. Major issue in clinical setting like hospitals: budgets are small for hospital libraries, double cost of research and then subscription. Physicians and clinicians dont understand they have publishing rights, more pressure to publish, find themselves subject to predatory publishers.

OA names: PLOS, DOAJ, BioMed, PubMed Central, OpenRepository. NIH Public Access Policy. Many hospitals don't have institutional repository. but NIH needs you to have open access version of data, the researchers don't know where to do that. Medical librarians can step in and not only inform themselves and also try to make sure clinicians and others are supported and able to engage. Number of hospitals approaching - Kaiser has a repository and is working to draft author's rights articles and policies.

2008 forward, any peer-reviewed article funded by NIH grant or cooperative agreement or employee of NIH must be made available (particularly in PubMed). One of biggest issues in hospital librarianship is embargo (need to wait a year to have access to own info once published). This is why preprints and consultations during process of publishing have been helpful. Many clinicians unaware of some of these issues.

Training and outreach. hospital solo librarians trying to develop adaptive models. Can table about this with handouts, instructions, etc., ask for space in department and managers meetings. Need to plan out as they try to develop their research. Getting time to talk to faculty, setting up training and products so they don't need a librarian; they often get solicitations to be on editorial review boards but need training for looking out for predatory. More high impact journals are being bought by predatory journals to increase their impact factor.

Stalk faculty office hours, show up, intro, talk about all sorts of things, go to faculty chairs and present materials she has with materials to support their faculty in publishing and ask to send out her information, blasting through liaisons. Face to face feel more guilty about not forwarding emails.

UoP Health sciences librarian
Just cut over $200k in serials after years of flat budget. Health science has very expensive subscriptions, so lion's share of cuts. Concerns and questions from faculty and students regarding OA materials and then processes. NIH mandate puts much pressure in terms of tenure requirements in publishing--many don't know embargo allows journal to be OA after a year. Also, pre-print copies can be put in university repository (IR librarian manages that - BePress). Sherpa-Romeo site (?) allows you to double check if you are abiding by publisher's copyright in terms of posting item to repository. They retrieve publications based on faculty CVs.

High OA fees is another concern. PLOS has a membership fee. Questions about high impact, submission fees, turnaround time, can library pay submission fees. Students: can library buy this expensive textbook? no. Solution to reducing costs for students?

Open access week
Open education week
Online Learning Consortium
Professional librarian and education conference sessions
Other librarians

Example of current issue: Conversation about Elsevier and ACS taking ResearchGate to court

Services in scholcomm for faculty: [missed slide]


Wednesday, October 04, 2017

Access 2017: Reflections from a First Timer


First, I want to express how very grateful I am to be one of the two folks who received the Access Conference Diversity Scholarship. The conference doesn't announce our names--the cost of the scholarship does not include you outing yourself, and that struck me as incredibly kind and gracious. Since I outed my disability quite a bit ago, I don't mind saying it here. I never would have been able to afford to attend without the assistance, and the conference is one of the most useful I've attended in my 15 years in libraries.

(You can find my session notes here for Day 1 morning, and early and late afternoon, and Day 2 morning, lightning talks, and afternoon sessions. I haven't gone back to clean them up yet, so forgive the messiness.)

Context

Since July 2014, I've served as the Information Literacy Coordinator at my library. This August, I've shifted into a new position as Digital and Data Services Librarian, an area I've harbored interest in (especially the idea of data and digital literacy) but haven't had the time to develop real skills in. My colleagues and admin are allowing me to learn the new position and handle the learning curve when they could have hired an already-expert; my hope is that the relationships I've managed to build with our faculty and students will be a strong starting point in developing new services. In any case, I have a ton to learn now that I'm on the Technical Services side of the house for the very first time in my career.

Thoughts on the Conference

The conference--I was afraid that it would be all code and above my head, and was really pleasantly surprised to find that while there's was a lot of talk about applications and development and some slides of code, it was all within a framework of application development to support access to information. If you look at my notes, linked above, you'll see some lines where I get a little lost in the metadata coding or json or SPARQL (which I initially typed as Sparkle, all n00blike, imagining sparkly unicorns providing access to data), I could follow. Yes, I cheered internally during every session when I could understand things, and again when I could think of how we might use it (if we aren't already). Learning how all of the "automagic" really happens, and all of the time and work that goes into making us users feel like it's automagic for the user.

So, I was struck by just how much work and thinking about the user goes into doing the best job of making information accessible. The keynote and multiple presentations really hammered on how access to information is not an absolute or a Platonic Form of Good, but dynamic cultural constructs dependent on time, place, people, and land all I need relationship. The University I work at, California State University Channel Islands, is a federally designated Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI). Our faculty and students work with native peoples and sensitive populations like the poor, the undocumented, migrant workers, and native peoples. Thinking about this as we make decisions about what information we may or may not have, how we should or should not preserve it, who we should ask about that preservation of and provision to, and who the "we" should be in this whole sentence. This is important to me if I am going to be working with digital preservation, and the conference offered a number of applications that take this complexity into consideration.

I was also struck by the genuine ethos of generosity and sharing. Nearly everyone is posting their code on GitHub, and welcomed interested attendees to contact them with questions--no need to reinvent the wheel when you have generous colleagues willing to share their work and allow you to build onto or customize it. And I can see how things like the IIIF framework might be really useful to my faculty who have tons of digitized images of beaches, or microplastics in fishbellies, or digitized images of old manuscripts or papers... my head is spinning and it's wonderful to be talking to faculty about their research and also have some of the conference knowledge I gleaned inform what we might be able to help them do with that information.

It also helped me make a list of all of the many things I need to know in terms of information architecture and metadata schemas. [I would like to note that I avoided cataloging-esque stuff for almost 15 years of librarianship, and now I'm wishing I had taken Lois Chan's class at UK while I was there.]

[Also, the stereotype of Canadians being wildly polite and nice...happens to be true. At least, in my limited experience at the Calgary airport and in Saskatoon. But if the extra polite even applies at the airport, you *know* it's special.]

Access is definitely a major conference on my radar for next year, given how much I learned. With the new position in digital and data services, my entire landscape of conference attendance and professional reading has shifted dramatically. I'll be attending ASIST at the end of October 2017, and will likely attend the Digital Humanities Summer Institute (DHSI) up at the University of Victoria in British Columbia (back in Canadialand).

Your turn to share: I would love to hear from you all about what other conferences I should be looking at.

Friday, September 29, 2017

Access 2017 Conference Day 2 Notes Sessions 4-7 #accessYXE

Session 4: IIIF You Can Dream and Not Make Dreams Your Master - IIIF In The Real World - Peter Binkley

IIIF (Triple-I Eff) - provides above the tiled image level, a whole presentation level - a book reader like Internet Archive, but manifest itself is a lovely structured package of info about a digitzed object that can be used for different purposes. Useful beyond the eyecandy of slides.

See http://iiif.io - learn 90% of what you want to know here

About 100 participating institutions in IIIF community like Internet Archive, Getty. Also a github/iiif repository and worth looking in there called awesome-iiif which is the community-maintained list of resources and demos and links, etc.

Goals of IIIF - provide unprecedented level of uniform and rich access to image-based resources for scholars; define APIs that support interoperability between repositories; provides a world-class user experience in viewing, comparing, manipulating, and annotating images. Annotating - very exciting! Use open annotation specification to allow users to create annotations that you let them view.

A family of APIs: Image API does the tiling - google maps effect of infinitely deep zoom into image via detailed tiles cut from image so not downloading huge image all at once. Presentation API - most interesting and impactful - metadata package with structural metadata about items you're presenting, can link to descriptive metadata, can only embed as name value parents as labels - you shouldnt be doing structured metadata here. Search & Authentication APIs are most recent additions. Search intended to allow you to drive a full text search of document based on a server-side index. IIIF client can run queries against your items. Authentication API for those required to authenticate access to images and tiles, example from Canadiana. All of these APIs based on json-ld. Most promising - every time presenting book through IIIF you are creating linked data. URIs available for use beyond IIIF system.

Tiled image layer - depends on a specific URL pattern - build URL with 5 elements appended to identifier of image you want (region [cropped tile area], size[1024], rotation [0], quality [default], format [jpg]) where [] are examples). As it creates the tile you've asked for, applies operations in order listed. Not often making these by hand, but by javascript client running in browser. Example of Princeton and their illuminated manuscript shown in demo.

Need to put processing power behind it to meet requests. All of the info a IIIF client needs to determine what it should ask for is encapsulated in a file called info.json - have one for every image in collection, sometimes created on the fly. It tells the application what the options are. Client knows what server can do, client needs to make requests server can actually serve based on the menu of options. This is linked data. Json-ld: Linked data expressed in JSON - subject, predicate, object. JSON reasonably concise but is linked data, full RDF, this is a good thing.

3 levels of compliance - 2 has more possibilities and features it supports. Level 0 specifies a level of functionality that can be satisfied by static files all pregenerated, and client will only ask for those limited images to present to user - low level of technical commitment to get on the IIIF bandwagon. He has written Jekyll plug-in to let you throw hi-res images in and get a level 0 IIIF presentation for static log and it pretty much works.

Presentation from Book of Hours of Geneve, Bibliotheque de Geneve - zoom, side by side page view, click on info and see embedded metadata of simple name value pairs. If want to compare, the Mirador (sp?) client allows to open two side-by-side.

All driven by shared Canvas model - specification allows to describe each image as a canvas onto which we paint other things. There might be text annotations we want to overlay or highlight, count as annotations going onto a canvas [Personal note: Gah! This might work for Island stuff]. Miniatures cut from medieval manuscripts and at other libraries can be overlaid digitally and restore manuscript by painting into coordinates. Once you go IIIF a third party can pull tiles and publish.

Responsibility to maintain URIs must be useful as basis of open annotations others will make, which may be on other servers; if reorganize and break URIs, is disservice to scholars, so we must treat it as linked data.


Session 5: Cantaloupes and Canvases: Adopting IIIF Specifications - Sascha Adler

Why is IIIF at Canadiana (pipeline from digitization to preservation to access, repository, provide access, some collections free, some subscription based, specialize in early Canadian history). Why adopt it?

Content Server (COS) serves derivative images and direct file access (full pdfs). Everything else goes through CAP which does everything - presentation, search, user and institution authentication, admin tools, CMS, administrative tools, etc. Tough to maintain and update. Move from monolith to modules - smaller interconnected services to improve codebase. IIIF helps because multiple services will be publicly accessible, would be nice to have open internationally adopted standards. Replace or modules with community built software so maintain less code. Also want to provide content with public APIs, right now can only access through web interface. Also helps think about new features - annotations are very powerful, they would love transcriptions for written collections where OCR doesn't work, search term highlighting on top of images, and the IIIF annotation spec allows us to think about this. Right now they don't do tiled image rendering, but IIIF standards adopted and put in a viewer and they'd be good to go.

6 month progress so far:

Cantaloupe - derivative image generation medusa-project.github.io/cantaloupe/
Written in java, handles jpegs, tiffs, pdfs, jpeg2000, easy to configure but watch out for properties file and

see config and Docker image at github.com/c7a/cihm-cantaloupe

Direct file access spun out to separate service, CAP image viewer rewritten to make requests with IIIF

converting series to collections, and items to manifests for IIIF - output can be plugged into IIIF compatible viewers.

Authentication: cantaloupe is configured to only handle authorized requests, easy to configure. Full integration of IIIF authentication API will take some more work. Given a user and an image, what rights does request have (doable but will take time).

Next - Authentication API, convert internal presentation output to IIIF, Evaluate IIIF viewers, internal data models for annotations (explore and develop models)

see github.com/c7a for their work
@SaschaAdler


Session 6: An Open Source Approach to Proactively Manage EZProxy - Jason Zou 

Cancelled but Slides available here - Session author unavailable

AbstractIt is a daunting task to manage EZProxy without any additional tools. Especially, when various vendors notify you that they have to cut off your institutions' access, because of massive or illegal downloading. Where to start? The presenter will share his experiences of using an open source approach to proactively monitor and manage EZproxy.


Session 7: Kenny: A Web-Based Tool for EZProxy Authentication Management

Web based login management tool. Kenny? Design decisions are an important part of any project: what server platform, what app framework, what license model. but NAME. Manage Log ins... loggins...Kenny. Loggins.

Problem: Academic libraries are constant target for academic theft. User accounts compromised, probing from servers and bots. Occasional need to override a user's level of access (demoting from current student to alumni status, for ex). We run EZProxy to manage this. EZProxy and other servers are under constant attack by big organizations, not little users, to harvest data we license access to. They group database by access status, but occasional need to override user's access.

But EZProxy! EZP does privide some ways to reject IPs and override access groups folks are assigned to. RejectIP directive, a user.txt file (baduser:deny). Disadvantages - to make changes, those in charge need SSH access to the EXP server and permission to write those files. Changes in Config.txt require EZP daemon to be restarted. Root privileges? Yeah right, not giving that out. Also no record of who blocked what user on what day and why.

If others are working with patrons to reinstate access, they would need to kick support ticket to IT to fix, extra delay and a disservice. Kenny as solution. Web based tool to allow any authorized member manage blocking, or overriding the assigned EZproxy groups, for patron accounts and IP ranges. Doesnt run on EZP server, doesn't require staff have access to server with SSH or root access. Uses standard authentication method supported by EZP, so no reboots of EZP needed. Designed to capture complete history of who blocked, when why and by whom. If configured properly, Kenny can terminate sessions in the EZP server (blocking user only half problem; if an open connection, even blocking user doesn't impact as long as session is open)

EZP supports 2 custom authentication methods, CGI and External, Kenny makes use of external (after CAS or LDAP and acts as filter).

Default list is all currently blocked users. can import text file of blocked users into Kenny.
Great for those who deal with compromised accounts in EZProxy.

PHP application, developed using Laravel 5.4 framework. Bootstrap, with support for Bootswatch themes. Session management accomplished via HTTP requests to standard EXP web interface. Open source, coming soon to GitHub