SJSU Open Access Conference 2017: (Re)Placing Open: Assessing the Current OA Landscape (Morning Sessions)

Full Program Available Here

Welcome Address - Dr. Tracy Elliott
SJSU repository allows researchers to share more broadly, but also to see more quickly the impact of that research.

Charlotte Roh, University of San Francisco

Scholcomm at USanFran, she's holding a brownbag around theme "Open in Order To." Successful examples: SPARC website examples, and SciELO, Harvard's DASH repository - comments about media and democracy. MIT's OA Stories. USF respository most downloaded record is a dissertation (repositories usually only the way to get access to theses). Video of John Lewis accepting National Book Award. JOhn Lewis and co-authors won with a graphic novel, first of those nominated to win. Due to belief comic books are inherently bad (Wertham's Seduction of the Innocent - research wrong and librarians enforcing an untruth that graphic novels are all bad). Also, Lewis and his family were not allowed in library. Not over - in Boston Chinatown's library was shut down and is only now reopening after years of lobbying.

Another way people of color have been shut out is as creators - 1985 only 18 children's books created by African Americans, representation inside books themselves is also a problem. Diversity in Children's Books 2015 infographic. Race/thnicity of mainstream publishing professionals also lacks diversity. Also heteronormative and able-bodied.

Fobazi Ettarh - "vocational awe" Jusy 2017 keynote- feeling that profession is above critique, but at end of day libraries are institutions located at center of marginal oppressions that need reform. Demograohics of scholarly publishing professionals - overwhelmingly white - also an institution. Oxford University part of empire, Elsevier has roots in arms trade (what the actual fuck?) roots also in empire. US is also an empire (read Ebony and Ivory on how slavery built American educational institutions). Race/ethnicity of library professionals: we are much less diverse than we would like to believe.

The problem is all of us: we hold power. As we think of demographics in publishing, academia, libraries, "Who has power" slide - CC-BY, invites us to use it. How this power plays out - American Historical Review apologized for assigning review to white supremacist, issue on BLM that didn't include any black authors. Third World Quarterly published article  defense of colonialism - many members of board resigned over it.

Lariviere's Global gender disparities in science article (2013). What gets published determines who gets funded, who gets tenure, whose research is published and available. And who own our boased output. Lariviere's 2015 Oligopoloy of academic publishers in the digital era. PLoS ONE 10.6 article.

Coalition for Responsible Sharing - publishers are thinking of themselves as technologists and tech companies - optimizing altmetrics, etc. Confluence between academia and technology. Just as Google can be biased and gamed (Safiya Noble's Algorithms of Oppression), so can Google Scholar. Women academics are finding out they're being trolled online by looking at their altmetrics online. "Are ALMs/altmetrics propagating global inequity" article. Open Education conference - 3 of 4 keynotes were white men talking about diversity. "Making the Global Local: the Colonialism of Scholarly Communication" at blog At The Intersection.

We should do better, and we know how to do better. Making resources available to people with disabilities is within our reach. Open access doesn't mean free. UMinn keeps list of higher ed Accessiblity lawsuits

Walidah's "Liberated Archives" Keynote, Society of American Archivists 2017 Annual Conference. Open access doesn't just mean "come on in we're open." But we've closed out people of color for so long, how do we take this knowledge people want, not what we assume they want, out into community where they can engage with it. Open access is not just virtual.

Examples of actions: Library Publishing Coalition putting together Ethical Framework for Academic Publishing; AAUP Diversity Fellowships funded by Mellon; Martin Paul Eve, co-director of Open Library of the Humanities; OpenCon's diversity statement; The Knowledge Gap: The Geopolitics of Academic Production.

One of silver linings of current administration is people are taking these topics seriously. Now 15 min for questions.

How has OA impacted ability of people of color to use and publish? Tools of publishing in hands of everyone now; publishing as a process is less precious than it used to be, but the rest of the infrastructure of prestige still remains. Global South and Asia bitterness on how research and publication is received. World Bank put out a paper noting that if you're publishing on economics and it's not about the Global North it's less likely to get published, so researchers change their focus because need tenure. Jeffrey Beal hasn't helped situation because in places where publishing is growing, whereas we have protocols and checks and balances, there are all sorts of places where we are less forgiving than we should be of how things are developing and growing.

Informal article sharing networks - are folks developing peer networks instead of formal publishing endeavors, and is that holding back improvement? Publishing in Southern and Latin America has always been open access and always state funded and always mined by people in West who haven't attributed it properly. Latin American and South America didn't just start with OA via the Budapest talks. Large West conglomerate publishers have been coming in and purchasing, breaking socialist sharing model with the paid model.

Understanding of Google algorithm - top results are most linked to by other web pages? Search results used to be based on links to other content, but not the case anymore, that was a decade ago. Search engine optimization - marketers do not think of Google as a neutral tool. Noble's research started because when she Googled "black girls" she got porn, and no one listened until she was published in Bitch magazine and then they changed their algorithm. So that tells us their algorithm isn't based upon neutrality, they've never been neutral.

20 states in US where you cannot create a municipal broadband because lobbyists have succeeded in making it difficult or illegal. People have control over what we see, how we see it, when we see it. 

Any categorizing scheme reflects some bias. Dewey had 50 categories of religion, 59 were Christian. In Wikipedia - boasted enormous amount of openness, but is mainly white European males doing the contributing. Issue of you need reliable sources (who defines the aspect of reliability in colonial world? The colonizers! Other kinds of information are not considered valid). Deep problem.

In OA journals, often have article submission fees that have been creeping up, and what is impact upon researchers of color while library budgets are contracting? who owns our research, who has the right to issue takedown notices? techDirt article on 'Coalition for responsible Sharing' issuing takedowns, techCrunch article "ResearchGate Raises $52.6M for its social research network for scientists." Need to negotiate for translation rights, take out noncompete clause on article publication if planning to publish book, negotiate rights for version in 5 years if it will become outdated. Retain rights over own work in full or in part that you will need.

As a library too small to handle OA fees for faculty--you can and should negotiate those fees, everything is negotiable. Those fees are based on what the market can bear. Roh tells her authors to tell publishers that they have no grant funding but still want to publish, and then fees are altered. It's not a cost recovery model. Fee for publishing not because of OA. In some scientific fields has always been standard based on illustrations in color, charts, etc. - has long been pay for publication, not pay for OA. It's a publishing model that moved into the OA realm. Consequence is that pay for publishing forces researchers outside the West to partner with funded researchers for the West; people of color do all the work, Western researchers gaining the credit. 

{Note to self: OA Tracking Project}

Leslie Kennedy EdDCSU Chancellor's Office
Lesley Farmer PhDCalifornia State University, Long Beach

Trying to help faculty incorporate ICT literacy into the curriculum.

CSU OER initiatives, CA legislation influences, faculty and student OER activities, impact, next steps, physical and intellectual access to OERS. OERs - in public domain or introduced with open license where anyone can freely use, re-use, and share.

Open - free PLUS permissions. Wiley "What does open allow me to do?" Retain, Reuse, Revise, Remix, Redistribute.

Why OER? Cost savings for students, facilitates choice of resources, often digital access, may be more timely, remix options, options for student interaction and contribution to publishing, philosophy of open education, but how do you find and select them? Vetting and production and printing takes time, digital materials available in timely manner is important. Students can be part of this process, generating knowledge, this is becoming more of a norm.

Faculty: "I can't find this stuff, I don't know how to do it, it isn't good enough because it's free." Put in ISBN, it will offer relevant materials.

MERLOT is part of solution, a community based repository of learning objects, can be repurposed for a lot of different situations. Free digital library of online teaching and learning. 20 years old, contributors and editors from around the world and in different languages, over 78,000 materials, contributed by educators, peer-reviewed.

Principles: choice, affordability, accessiblity
Funding: campus grants ($15-20k annually)
Communication: webinars, conference, listservs, resources
Partner library, bookstore, DSPS, AT FacDev, students
Campus showcases and recognition events

Motto: give a gift and not a burden. Even though Chancellor's office funds, ends up on someone else's list of to-dos.

CA OER Legislation milestones, various bills passed. For CSU (and occasionally UCs and community colleges). Most recent bill requires that put into online schedule whether course materials are free or not.

SB1052, free textbooks for a gen ed course due to articulation need, and develop deliverable for school for ed. Evaluations of textbooks. when faculty had to come up with review criteria, developed a rubric. Cloned for Louisiana, TN, soon FL, and support GA State and SUNY and Excelsior College.

Recognition of faculty. 1/3-1/2 faculty participating in affordable learning solutions and lowering costs for students (CSUDH). CSU Bakersfield Econ department went completely open! (Wow.) 20 campuses of 23 passed faculty senate resolutions in past year in support of OERs, requirement to apply for funds. (Kind of a bribe?)

List of CSU and community college campuses with Faculty Professional Development Implementation Plan.

Faculty member doesn't feel beholden to stick to the purchased text, feel more freedom with an open textbook. Students buy required materials at 45%, similar to national numbers; 59% feel they're affected negatively if don't purchase materials, and will choose to purchase for major courses and not GE courses, thus the focus of OER.

Student advocacy activities. Hey shoutout for Channel Islands is marking in online registration system which courses have all free course materials.

Not just access, but intellectual access. Differences between reading online vs print are different. Part of ICT/digital learning and need to pass on to students. Proliferation of literacies. ICT literacy confluence of infolit, digital literacy, and instructional design. In MERLOT there's an ICT literacy community section with information about identifying ICT literacy, ways to incorporate it. SUbject specific inspiration, see how real people have done it.

Need to match student learning utcomes with particular kinds of resources. what resources are out there, how easy to use, are they accessible, ho wmuch time does it take to learn to use the resource, are there plugins, how do we use in learning activity, how use for students ot gain and apply it.

remix-ti - resource showing how to use different tools to develop student assignments using ICT.

4 part course on ICT integration that faculty can use. More librarians and instructional designers can team with faculty developing expertise, richer learning experiences for students and higher chance students will succeed academically.

Next steps:

Q: more of these are digital, (heck, there's smart refrigerators). Save students money, increasing equity and access for students. Lowering text cost, but also assumption that students have access to devices. Digital divide still exists.

Q: Partnerships with private universities? Excelsior, meeting with U of Pacific. Willing to share whatever we can. Wrt case studies, can't think of any specifics.

Q: How does this transfer to tenure and promotion - has this movement affected those faculty publishing in OA journals and putting forth more OA tenure packets? A: for years print has been privileged. Needle is slowly moving. New fight is about blogs and wort of social media. A little more awareness of altmetrics. faculty have been appreciative of librarians who can help with altmetrics or  impact factor. Seeing less of an emphasis on format, but it's still la bit of a struggle. This year we can finally do our RTP online. Only U of British Columbia embeds in RTP that we know of.

Q: pushback from faculty on the academic freedom front: Is pushing these materials imposing -- no, we provide as resources and encourage faculty to look at them. usually we see one faculty member might adopt an open stacks book and share with colleagues. San Luis Obispo is now all OpenStacks for Chemistry. With new legislation where courses are marked or word of mouth, those sections fill before the others, so it's more effective practice when have an entire program who looks at the menu of available textbooks to see what makes sense for students, and more equitable for students

Is required for those mentioned GenEd classes to use those free resources?

Rachel K. StarkCalifornia State University, Sacramento
Mickel ParisUniversity of the PacificJoy RodriguezKaiser Permanente (not present)

Specifically some of the issues that have come up in practice. Major issue in clinical setting like hospitals: budgets are small for hospital libraries, double cost of research and then subscription. Physicians and clinicians dont understand they have publishing rights, more pressure to publish, find themselves subject to predatory publishers.

OA names: PLOS, DOAJ, BioMed, PubMed Central, OpenRepository. NIH Public Access Policy. Many hospitals don't have institutional repository. but NIH needs you to have open access version of data, the researchers don't know where to do that. Medical librarians can step in and not only inform themselves and also try to make sure clinicians and others are supported and able to engage. Number of hospitals approaching - Kaiser has a repository and is working to draft author's rights articles and policies.

2008 forward, any peer-reviewed article funded by NIH grant or cooperative agreement or employee of NIH must be made available (particularly in PubMed). One of biggest issues in hospital librarianship is embargo (need to wait a year to have access to own info once published). This is why preprints and consultations during process of publishing have been helpful. Many clinicians unaware of some of these issues.

Training and outreach. hospital solo librarians trying to develop adaptive models. Can table about this with handouts, instructions, etc., ask for space in department and managers meetings. Need to plan out as they try to develop their research. Getting time to talk to faculty, setting up training and products so they don't need a librarian; they often get solicitations to be on editorial review boards but need training for looking out for predatory. More high impact journals are being bought by predatory journals to increase their impact factor.

Stalk faculty office hours, show up, intro, talk about all sorts of things, go to faculty chairs and present materials she has with materials to support their faculty in publishing and ask to send out her information, blasting through liaisons. Face to face feel more guilty about not forwarding emails.

UoP Health sciences librarian
Just cut over $200k in serials after years of flat budget. Health science has very expensive subscriptions, so lion's share of cuts. Concerns and questions from faculty and students regarding OA materials and then processes. NIH mandate puts much pressure in terms of tenure requirements in publishing--many don't know embargo allows journal to be OA after a year. Also, pre-print copies can be put in university repository (IR librarian manages that - BePress). Sherpa-Romeo site (?) allows you to double check if you are abiding by publisher's copyright in terms of posting item to repository. They retrieve publications based on faculty CVs.

High OA fees is another concern. PLOS has a membership fee. Questions about high impact, submission fees, turnaround time, can library pay submission fees. Students: can library buy this expensive textbook? no. Solution to reducing costs for students?

Open access week
Open education week
Online Learning Consortium
Professional librarian and education conference sessions
Other librarians

Example of current issue: Conversation about Elsevier and ACS taking ResearchGate to court

Services in scholcomm for faculty: [missed slide]


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