Electronic reserves: change is our constant companion by Linda Fredericksen and Michelle (Chelle) Batchelor
Brief history, current model, challenges, streaming, discussion.
History of reserves. Short term access to instructor material has been logtermm tradition in us academic libraries as early as 1880s at harvard, uMich, johns hopkins. Has been around a long time. Mor ethan a nerd years later, is changing gin a number of levels. From one type of ereserves tech to another, or a more fundamental level in terms of electronic reserves environment. Old print reserve room was bustling place, lot of work wen tint getting print item moon reserve, a d a lot of work in maintaining, then taking off reserve. Back end part of print reserve room was busy. Very location bound. Library controlled all of the access in terms of what came in and what went out.practice of circ based on first sale for these historical hard copy reserves. Despite problems of space limitations and single use access, most ARLs had used reserve practices and at a large ARL from. 120,000 reserve transactions per year.
Rapidly changing technology from nineteen seventies on touched reserve rooms. Photocopiers, scanners, computers. Early mid 1990s for electronic reserves. Solved many problems of paper based location bound service. Automated process for improving range, speed, quantity and quality of reserves. Copyright clearance, special equipment for scanning, server space for storing files. Ereserves vary widely in practice based on infrastructure, manpower, demand, interpretation of copyright law. Decline in physical reserves. Access faster andeasier, but other challenges including copyright permission, complexity and cost, concerns about fair use and first sale in electronic world.
Gradual decline. In number of courses asking for reserve, number of items on reserve. Seeing a change in format, more media being placed on reserve more than physical print books and articles.
Challenges of ereserves environment: wsu Vancouver declining stats and changes in format mirror elsewhere. nCES shows equaiva,net decline in reserve collection circulation. What is happening? In early 2010 kimberly godson at uc San Diego discovered that a number of libraries are discontinuing or radically altering ereserves system. New model of ereserves is self service with library at periphery. Course management systems have supplementary and required content beigloaded in individual class areas. Access facilitated through cms, but other work done by individual faculty or units outside library. oHSU Oregon pulled plug on reserves as cost saving measure. Done all throu course management system, they were in competition with library for limited resources. Library scans and posts if requested. Not at center of process anymore. Library is building copyright and fair use tutorial faculty must take before posting material. Seeking permissions, paying copyright and royalty fees is labor intensive and expensive. One way to adapt os to move services into other areas, combine staff, etc.
Right now it appears that as scanners revolutionized print reserves, maybe CMSes will revolutionize ereserves again. Or not. Maybe hose loading subscribed intent will run up against same issues as libraries; seeking copyright is difficult an dtimem consuming, it may come back to the library. Maybe institutional erection to send things back to libraries. Unsure what will happen next next. Critical challenge is copyright and licensing. Recent legal activity at Gsu and ucla. We suspect faculty aren't seeking permission once reeves move outside of the library. Do we have an ethical obligation to intervene? Who is getting permission? Is it being done at all?
As publishers are trying to change the game, we may be losing some of our rights with first sake and fair use as it moves into licensing discussion instead of copyright discussion. During-past ten years, enormous change. Changes in format and licensing with event of CMSes transform teaching and learning. We can only be certain of continued change on unexpected fronts.
chelle: faculty have started to ask for more media reserves in physical and streaming media with digital access. Evolving ereserves model. Significant challenges in tech, staffing and copyright law. She started researching because were piloting streaming media and wasn't working out well. Streaming audio media reserves: audio content via real timem streamigon net. Cant download, so isn't file sharing or providing mp3. Fairly established practice. Much of this done in music libraries supporting classes being taught. Streaming video is not a distribution method, they cant keep file, can only watch online. John donne and mark notice at educause video survey , see these. Slides for the web addres of that educause presentation. Of 150, only half streaming through the library, other using IT or Comm department.
How? Technically? Two parts. With audio, is implement, can use iTunes, convert to mp3 and you can stream on a server supporting that format. For video, digitization is more complicated to digitize. We can break encryption to digitize and stream clips for classroom use. Some places instead of breaking encryption, they use converter machine Microsoft expression (?) and then stream digitized file off streaming media server. Cant be downloaded, delivery mechanism only. Interestingly, latest version of docutek erez supports streaming. Password protected.
Real life models of how streaming media at UWash tacoma and Seattle. Full service, both steps one an two by staff in library. Media librarian, then grad student. Use play and tape method with a converter, not breaking encryption. If stream intent originating on DVD, got funding. To staff service, and legal counsel which was liberal asked faculty be required to fill out fair use assessment form, which is online, and indicate all four factors of fair use based on class and requested content. Process and stream what they are asked to stream. At UW Bothell, wasn't working. Streaming audio was fine, but media was bundled in, and bide was poor. Not scalable based on staffing model, and was very time intensive. High paid staff person beside computer steaming, but needed funding to hire additional staff. Student sin program using streaming were distance ed in remote regions of the state without broadband, some still have dial up modems and cant access that media file and have it play. So stats showed service use was low. Next will be requesting that files submitted in already digitized format where faculty comes in and works with library IT. It is a service for clips when it comes to video, but full audio file. Results of pilot will be in next year.
Fair use, teach act. Legal counsel, copyright. They believe well within fair use. Nature, purpose of copying, extent of items used and impact on market. Faculty think they're fine, but here's a lot of contention. Folks may argue against claim of fair use. Technology has changed. In 1976 when copyright act was last updated, wooden apple was first PC. Huge implications for what we are seeing right now in litigations and disputes over copyright law. Technology has changed and education has changed, and words to use defining copyright like face to face,
classroom use, copies, etc are inadequate in current electronic world. Much of redefining of copyright law is now being done through case law, so everyone is afraid of being sued. Cheers to Georgia State.
People are looking for hard and fast rules to follow. Copyright holders have forgotten balance of copyright and fair use originally intended. Copyright protects creator, fair use protects those who want material to learn, comment, criticize. We are in danger of that balance tipping. Teachinng and research is what we do in academic institutions. Where outdated law fails to. Address what we do, spirit of law is hopefully still on our side. What happens when someone threatens to sue? Scares us all. Copyright owners like films media group and oxford university press, would argue our assessments of fair use and ereserves are not enough. uW starts with fair use, only pays copyright for things used a lot. First sale going away if we move into. Subscription and not purchase. We are increasingly expected to negotiate licenses that are more restrictive with journals, evokes, etc. We must bhe diligent in negotiating these licenses. Streaming media is another no, just because you bought it doesn't mean that you can provide access to. It in the way your instructors and students need. You need to pay to subscribe and steam it and you still don't own it. When axes come up, ee fall back seeking safe guidelines, eroding our own practice of fair use.
Future: fear or freedom? Great guidelines and best practices by arl and video roundtable with ALA. In process axes with gsu or ucsd. Interesting things in world like creative commons, which allows for use of content, open access academic publishing. Will help us with these issues, a way lf fighting. Back. Revolutionizing the way we think about ownership. We are fighting for sprit of creativity and progress which s orignially in spirit of copyright. Should it be based on what faculty and student scan afford to buy pay per view, or do we go about providing access for best possible access for providing access to the information.
They have cheapie blackboard, and password protection is easily hackable and anyone can sign up for a class and blackboard account. Too many holes in enterprise blackboard. Better to post under Docutek. Copyright form, similar to Crews form, but she doesn't like parts of their form. In terms of clips, is there a limit? Kenneth Crews, just because it doesn't make one factor it doesn't mean its not fair use, need to weigh other three factors. What about duplication of clips? Currently no mechanism for logging those. Docutek has player embedded in the page. At first, was too easy for someone to actually save the file, but now you can change setting and make it unsavable.
They have faculty fill out the fair use checklist? Or do they take their evaluation? They just believe faculty.
If it's fair use once, it may be fair use again. Just because used last semester, doesn't mean they cant use it again without paying. If it met four factors first time, may meet them again. Every request needs to be looked at as a new use. We bought it, we should be able to use it as we want to. Fair use was constructed to support teaching and education. Library of congress ruling recently definitely made that similar argument of fair use in spirit of education.